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3 edition of Biochemical Aspects of Paraquat Toxicity found in the catalog.

Biochemical Aspects of Paraquat Toxicity

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Published by Academic Press Inc.,U.S. .
Written in English


The Physical Object
Number of Pages250
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL7325545M
ISBN 100120688506
ISBN 109780120688500

  Ayoola () and Omitoyin et al. () have both looked at aspects of glyphosate toxicity to C. gariepinus - histopathology and biochemical effects. Doherty et al. () also studied histopathological changes in the liver and gills of C. gariepinus after exposure to paraquat.   Pune, Maharashtra, India, July 27 (Wiredrelease) Prudour Pvt. Ltd: research industry gives a complete investigation of the global Paraquat market for the predicted forecast period The Paraquat market research study delivers deep insights into the various market segments based on end-use, types, and geography. pyridine nucleotide coenzymes chemical biochemical and medical aspects part a and b coenzymes and cofactors volume Posted By Rex StoutMedia Publishing TEXT ID c8f78 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDE COENZYMES CHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL .


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Biochemical Aspects of Paraquat Toxicity by Anne P. Autor Download PDF EPUB FB2

Description. Biochemical Mechanisms of Paraquat Toxicity presents the proceedings of the First Iowa Symposium on Toxic Mechanisms that was held from JuneThe symposium brought together a diverse group of investigators consisting of chemists, pharmacologists, pathologists, biochemists, and toxicologists from the United States, Canada, and Europe who have been interested in the mechanism of paraquat toxicity.

Biochemical Mechanisms of Paraquat Toxicity Paperback – Novem by Anne Pomeroy Autor (Editor) See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Price New from Used from Kindle "Please retry" $ — — Hardcover Format: Paperback.

Compare book prices from overbooksellers. Find Biochemical Mechanisms of Paraquat Toxicity () by Autor, Anne P. Primary events in lung following exposure to toxic chemicals / Hanspeter Witschi, Kei-Ichi Hirai, and Michel G. Coté --Electron transfer reactions of paraquat / Anthony Ledwith --The pathology of the lung in paraquat poisoning / Donald Heath and Paul Smith --Importance of oxygen and of pulmonary alveolar surfactant in lung injury by paraquat.

Electronic books Conference papers and proceedings Congresses: Additional Physical Format: Print version: Iowa Symposium on Toxic Mechanisms (1st: Iowa City). Biochemical mechanisms of paraquat toxicity.

New York: Academic Press, (DLC) (OCoLC) Material Type: Conference publication, Document, Internet resource. As discussed later, the biochemical mechanism of paraquat toxicity is due to the cyclic oxidation and reduction that occurs in various tissues, especially lung, leading to production of superoxide anion and other free radicals; these chemical species react with polyunsaturated free radicals, eventually forming the highly destructive hydrogen peroxide.

The acute toxicity profile toxicity of paraquat demonstrates that in laboratory animals, paraquat is of moderate to high acute oral toxicity and high acute inhalational toxicity, but low dermal toxicity. Paraquat is a severe eye irritant, moderate skin irritantbut, not a skin sensitiser.

Paraquat is moderately to highly acutely toxic. Paraquat is highly toxic and there is no antidote. One small accidental sip can be fatal. Paraquat is about 28 times more acutely toxic than glyphosate.

Acute poisoning may occur through contact with skin, eyes, or via inhalation. There is now also increasing evidence that chronic exposure to paraquat is linked with adverse effects, for example. Paraquat causes direct damage when it comes into contact with the lining of the mouth, stomach, or intestines.

After paraquat enters the body, it is distributed to all areas of the body. Paraquat causes toxic chemical reactions to occur throughout many parts of the body, primarily the lungs, liver, and kidneys. In contrast, paraquat toxicity in mice was increased by exposure to % oxygen and by deficiencies of the antioxidants selenium, vitamin E, or reduced glutahione (GSH).

Paraquat, given IP to mice, at 30 mg/kg, decreased concentrations of the water-soluble antioxidant GSH in liver and lipid soluble antioxidants in lung. Paraquat is moderately to highly toxic to many species of aquatic life including rainbow trout, bluegill, and channel catfish.

At high levels, paraquat inhibits the photosynthesis of some algae in stream waters. Paraquat is rapidly excreted by animals, so tissue accumulation is unlikely. Paraquat is broken down and excreted via the kidneys. Very low steady exposure doesn’t cause poisoning because it’s being excreted all the time—there is no tissue accumulation in animals.

You have to ingest or absorb a threshold amount over a couple days to become seriously ill from poisoning. This chapter focuses on the primary biochemical pathways altered in cyanide toxicity and the biological manifestations attributed to their inhibition.

The rapidity of action and multiple toxic pathways contribute to the extreme lethality of cyanide and the complexities of effectively reversing or treating the toxicity. oxygen toxicity Irwin Fridovich and H. Moustafa Hassan Paraquat subverts electron flow from the normal cytochrome pathway and increases intracellular production of superoxide radical.

This radical, which is the cause of paraquat toxicity, elicits increased synthesis of the. Paraquat toxicity is though to be mediated by the super-oxide anion O2- a reactive species generated by the reoxidation of reduced paraquat by molecular oxygen (5).

In this paper the biochemical responses of a number of different microorganisms to the presence oftoxic levels of paraquat. Paraquat Poisoning: Mechanisms, Prevention, Treatment (DRUG AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY) 1st Edition by Chantal Bismuth (Author), M.D.

Hall, Alan H. (Editor) ISBN Paraquat (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridylium) is the most important of the bipyridylium herbicides and is marketed in the UK in a variety of formulations as the dichloride salt (Table ).

Under the. Paraquat poisoning is a fast process, and symptoms develop quickly. Immediately after ingesting or inhaling a toxic amount of paraquat, an individual is likely to have swelling and pain in the. Paraquat is highly toxic, causing cardiogenic shock, multiorgan failure, and accumulate in the lungs and cause death from respiratory failure.

Diquat is less toxic, but because paraquat and diquat are generally sold as a mixture, both should be simultaneously identified and quantified in a single analysis. Functional, Morphologic and Biochemical Correlates of Pulmonary Toxicity of Paraquat Toxic Actions and Interactions of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pesticides Limited in vivo Liver Bioassays for Identifying Long-term Biological Effects Interactions between Pesticides and other Xenobiotics in the Kidney Dietary Factors Affecting Pesticides Toxicity.

Autor AP. Reduction of paraquat toxicity by superoxide dismutase. Life Sci. Apr 1; 14 (7)– Bus JS, Aust SD, Gibson JE. Superoxide- and singlet oxygen-catalyzed lipid peroxidation as a possible mechanism for paraquat (methyl viologen) toxicity.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Jun 4; 58 (3)– Paraquat is a toxic herbicide that has been related to many cases of fatal human poisoning – mainly due to deliberate oral ingestion (for suicide or murder), but also because of accidental ingestion in some cases.

Paraquat is a non-selective contact herbicide, which makes it effective on a wide range of weed plants and even on unrelated weeds. 1 The toxicokinetics of paraquat were studied in 18 cases of acute human poisoning using a specific radioimmunoassay.

Plasma paraquat concentration exhibited a mean distribution half-life (t ½ α) of 5 h and a mean elimination half-life (t ½ β) of 84 vascular collapse supervened early during the course of the intoxication and was associated with the distribution phase. PAGE #1: Tissue Specific Toxicity Biochemical Mechanisms By Robert Ludlum - tissue specific toxicity biochemical mechanisms latest uploaded books you can search book title name or isbn in the search box tissue specific toxicity biochemical mechanisms pdf search engine helps you find free books in pdf format whether you are searching for course.

The acute toxicity reported on this page is of the pure chemical ingredient only and may not reflect the acute toxicity of individual pesticide products. To view acute toxicity of individual products, click on 'View Products' link in the 'Chemical Identification' section above.

Cancer Information: Paraquat dichloride IARC Carcinogens. Aquatic toxicity Terrestrial toxicity Poisonings 5. Environmental fate Soil Water Air Bioaccumulation 6. Herbicide resistance 7. Alternatives to paraquat Alternative herbicides Alternative weed management 8.

References Paraquat is highly acutely toxic and enters the body mainly by swallowing, or through damaged. Abstract. Paraquat dichloride is considered to be highly toxic in nature and is widely used in India.

The present work aimed to investigate the toxicity induced by Paraquat on Monopterus cuchia exposed to the sub-lethal concentrations of 2 mg/L and 4 mg/L respectively. Paraquat (trivial name; / ˈ p ær ə k w ɒ t /), or N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride (systematic name), also known as Methyl Viologen, is an organic compound with the chemical formula [(C 6 H 7 N) 2]Cl is classified as a viologen, a family of redox-active heterocycles of similar structure.

Paraquat was manufactured by salt is one of the most widely used. Omaye ST, Reddy AK () Early and delayed biochemical effects of paraquat toxicity on rat lung.

Exp Mol Pathol – Google Scholar Pattee OH () Eggshell thickness and reproduction in American kestrels exposed to chronic dietary lead.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol – Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails.

The herbicide paraquat is considered safe by industry and the bulk of regulators worldwide. However, determinants of exposure from 30 years ago persist in developing countries. Sept - My elected 3rd Year Prestation; reviews paraquat toxicity in dogs Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.

If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Paraquat was undetected in groundwater as a non-point source pollutant. Detections in surface waters (– μg/L) were paraquat accumulation as toxic effects are mitigated via soil inactivation.

Pesticides are environmental contaminants that after use in agriculture, aquatic ecosystems are entered. These contaminants can enter the food chain and can cause problems for aquatic organisms and even humans. During the acute toxicity of this herbicide paraquat on some blood parameters, Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi (the total number of red blood cells, hemoglobin.

The other representative of this class is diquat (1,1’-ethylene-2,2’-bipyridilium), which causes fewer poisoning events than paraquat, the reason why reports on human toxicity and animal experimental data are less extensive for diquat than paraquat.

The mechanisms of paraquat and diquat toxicity are similar: radicals destroy lipid membranes. Therefore, the superoxides produced by paraquat can be neutralized by XBJ.

7,8 Shi et al. reported that XBJ can enhance the effectiveness of hemoperfusion in treating acute paraquat poisoning, and is better able to prevent pulmonary fibrosis than ulinastatin. 2 In addition, a recent meta-analysis 9 showed that the combination of XBJ and.

What are the clinical signs of paraquat toxicity. early signs are mainly GI injury, may see neuro damage. caustic so may see vomiting anorexia and depression. high doses cause dyspnea, seizures and ataxia.

delayed signs include tachypnea, dyspnea, harsh respiratory sounds, cyanosis and reduced pulmonary compliance. liver and renal failure may.

Out of these 3 million pesticide poisoning cases, 2 million are suicide attempts and the rest of these are occupational or accidental poisoning cases (Singh and Mandal, ).

Suicide attempts due to acute pesticide poisoning are mainly the result of widespread availability of pesticides in rural areas (Richter, ; Dawson et al., ). Clinical and pathomorphological data relating to fatal paraquat poisoning Cases of fatal poisoning can be sub-divided into cases of: (a) acute fulminant poisoning from a massive dose leading to generalized systemic poisoning and death from a combination of acute pulmonary oedema, oliguria, hepatocellular and adrenal failure and biochemical.

Inverse correlation between resistance towards copper and towards the redox-cycling compound paraquat: A study in copper-tolerant hepatocytes in tissue culture. Free Radical Biology and Medicine11 (1). If you believe you have been exposed to paraquat, seek medical care right away.

Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline () from anywhere in the United States.

This national hotline will let you talk to experts in poisoning.Vitamin C and Chitosan Alleviate Toxic Effects of Paraquat on Some Biochemical Parameters in Hepatocytes of Common Carp Z Sharifinasab, M Banaee, M Mohiseni, A Noori Iranian Journal of Toxicology 10 (31),  In most circumstances, increased G6PD activity has been reported to protect against oxidative stress-induced cell death.

38 However, the increased paraquat toxicity induced by G6PD overexpression and the protective effects of 6-AN can be explained by the requirement of reducing equivalents for paraquat to redox cycle (Figure (Figure7 7).